Publisher Information: 1914. Abel, John Jacob (1857-1938); Rowntree, Leonard G.; and Turner, B. B. On the removal of diffusible substances from the circulating blood of living animals by dialysis. Offprint from J. Pharm. & Exp. Therapeutics 5 (1914). 8vo. 275-316pp. Text illustrations. 267 x 182 mm. Original printed wrappers, slightly chipped at bottom edge. Very good copy. Book Id: 38746
First Separate Edition. Garrison-Morton 741.2. Abel, a student of Carl Ludwig and Johns Hopkins's first professor of pharmacology, made significant contributions to the development of biochemistry and pharmacology in the United States. In 1912, while investigating the protein constituents of the blood, Abel suggested that an "artificial kidney" might be used to remove and study constituents of the blood that are present only in minute amounts.
"An apparatus of coiled collodion tubes surrounded by a saline solution was soon devised and used for this purpose; arterial blood was shunted through these tubes and then returned to the experimental animal's vein. . . . Even at this time, Abel seems to have been aware of the clinical potential of what he called his 'vividiffusion' apparatus; it might, he suggested, prove useful in managing renal failure" (DSB).
To prevent blood clotting in his experimental animals, Abel used an anticoagulant obtained from leeches (hirudin); however, this was difficult to prepare and unsuitable for human use. Heparin, an anticoagulant occurring naturally in mammals, was discovered in 1916, but the use of dialysis as a clinical tool had to wait until 1937, when methods were developed to prepare large quantities of purified heparin extract..