22 offprints, mimeographs, etc. on molecular biology and bacterial genetics, with two others. Monod Jacob, and Brenner, Lwoff.

22 offprints, mimeographs, etc. on molecular biology and bacterial genetics, with two others.

Publisher Information: 1947-1968. Book Id: 38733

Jacob, Francois (1920- ); Monod, Jacques (1910-75); Lwoff, Andre (1902-94); & Brenner, Sydney (1927- ). Group of 22 offprints, mimeographs, etc. on molecular biology and bacterial genetics, together with 2 related papers by other authors. Various sizes. 1947-1968. Together in one volume, cloth, "Institut Pasteur" in gilt on the spine. Overall good to very good; see detailed condition descriptions below. From the library of G. G. and Elinor Meynell, authors of Theory and Practice in Experimental Biology (1970), with their address label on the front endpaper and ownership signatures on several of the offprints.

First / First Separate Editions. Jacob, Monod and Lwoff, all colleagues at the Institut Pasteur, received the 1965 Nobel Prize in physiology / medicine for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis-discoveries that "opened up a new field of research that deserved to be called 'molecular biology'" (Magill, The Nobel Prize Winners: Physiology or Medicine, II, p. 921). Their work answered the fundamental question of how the hereditary information contained in DNA can be translated into the chemical processes that synthesize cellular proteins (this question had been posed most succinctly and explicitly in Francis Crick's theoretical paper "On protein synthesis" [1957], which laid the groundwork for over a decade's worth of research in this area). Brenner, another key figure in this field, worked with Jacob and Matthew Meselson on providing experimental evidence for messenger RNA; he was awarded a share of the 2002 Nobel Prize for his discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death.

The collection we are offering here focuses largely on the Nobel Prize-winning work done by the Institut Pasteur group-Lwoff, Jacob and Monod-in the 1950s and 1960s. The work can be divided into four sections:

(1) lysogeny and bacterial conjugation

(2) expression of the genetic material via messenger RNA

(3) the regulation of the genetic activity of bacterial cells by operons

(4) the organization of bacterial genetic material.

In the following paragraphs we will attempt to highlight the more important papers in this remarkable collection; however, all the papers here touch upon these central questions of molecular biology.

Lysogeny, defined as the hereditary ability to produce the bacteriophage virus, is a peculiar type of infection in which the phage becomes part of the genetic material of a bacterial cell; in this non-infective form (prophage) it can then be inherited by succeeding generations of cells, becoming virulent only when some environmental stimulus causes the bacterium to produce and release phage.

"Lysogeny brought a model for the interrelation between a virus and a cell. And also a model for the possible mode of action of carcinogenic agents, which could disturb something in this balance" (Judson, p. 368). Lwoff studied this phenomenon intensively in the late 1940s and early 1950s, successfully demonstrating the genetic nature of lysogeny (which was disputed by several scientists, including Delbruck) and discovering how it is induced. In 1953 he published an important review of the subject ("Lysogeny," Bacteriological Review 17; see no. 2 below). Lysogeny was also studied by Jacob and Elie Wollman, whose paper, "Induction of phage development in lysogenic bacteria" (CSH Symposia on Quant. Biol. 18 [1953]; see no. 5 below) summarizes what had been learned about lysogeny as of that date.

Lwoff's work on lysogeny inspired Jacob and Wollman to investigate the phenomenon of bacterial conjugation (the transfer of genetic information from a male donor bacterium to a female recipient, resulting in genetic recombination) to see if they could discover where in the bacterium's genetic material the prophage was located. In 1955, working with a highly recombinant strain of E. coli (K12) discovered by William Hayes, Jacob and Wollman performed what came to be known as their "coitus interruptus" experiment, in which they used a Waring blender to interrupt the mating bacteria at various stages of their conjugation. They found that the donor cell's genetic characteristics were not transferred all at once, but rather sequentially over time-a discovery of great importance.

"Wollman and Jacob had stumbled upon a way to measure off the genes on [the] bacterial chromosome as directly and physically as a child squeezes toothpaste onto a brush or a carpenter unrolls a coiled steel tape measure. As they saw instantly, and reported in a note in mid-June 1955 in the weekly Comptes rendus of the Academie des Sciences ["Sur le mecanisme du transfert de materiel genetique au cours de la recombinaison chez E. coli K12"; see no. 6 below], they had the means to make a genetic map of biochemical characteristics expressed in units of time" (Judson, p. 385).

In 1956 Wollman and Jacob published the first (albeit rudimentary) timed map of the K12 strain of E. coli in a paper published in France. This map was printed again in their English-language paper "Conjugation and genetic recombination in E. coli K-12" (CSH Symposia on Quant. Biol. 21 [1956]; see no. 8 below), which also contained the first publication of Thomas Anderson's famous electron micrograph of two conjugated bacteria.

In 1958 Jacob delivered his paper "Transfer and expression of genetic information in E. coli K12" (see no. 9 below) at a symposium in Brussels; this paper, together with one given by Jacob's sometime colleague Arthur Pardee, "ranged over the whole matter of transfer of genes between bacteria and the regulation of their expression" (Judson, p. 400). Jacob and Wollman had originally represented the hereditary material in linear form, while stating that the genetic map could be formally represented as a circle. In 1963, at a Cold Spring Harbor conference, the researcher J. Cairns provided physical evidence that the E. coli chromosome was circular; at this same conference, Jacob, Brenner and co-author Francois Cuzin presented their paper "On the regulation of DNA replication in bacteria" (CSH Symposia on Quant. Biol. 28; see no. 16 below), containing their "replicon model of chromosome replication in bacteria, a model that almost required circularity of chromosomal and F factor DNA" (Brock, p. 103).

Experimental proof of the existence of messenger RNA, the substance responsible for coding protein synthesis, was announced in Brenner, Jacob and Meselson's landmark paper, "An unstable intermediate carrying information from genes to ribosomes for protein synthesis" [Nature 190 (1961)]; see no. 1 below). The theoretical groundwork for messenger RNA had been laid in Crick's "On protein synthesis" (1957); demonstration of the substance's existence had been foreshadowed by Volkin and Astrachan's discovery of a high-turnover, unstable RNA distinct from the ribosomal and transfer varieties (1956), and by the famous "PaJaMo" experiment demonstrating the negative control mechanism of enzyme induction (1958). However, it was not until the spring of 1960 that these previous findings were combined by Brenner, Jacob and Francis Crick into a biological model setting forth the exact means of communication between gene and cytoplasm, while eliminating the various problems associated with earlier ribosome-based theories of gene expression. As Brock puts it, the ribosome was now seen as "simply a nonspecific translation machine, something like a computer whose behavior depended on what software it contained" (Brock, p. 306).

Working with Matthew Meselson, who had developed experimental techniques for tagging and separating ribosomes, Brenner and Jacob performed the critical experiment described in their paper, which provided direct evidence for the existence of an unstable, rapidly turning over messenger RNA.

The concept of the operon-a group of adjacent genes functioning as a unit under the control of another gene (the operator gene)-developed between 1958 and 1960 on the basis of work done by Monod and Jacob, who were investigating the repressor model of gene regulation. Jacob developed the idea that gene regulation was based on a repression system that operated like an on-off switch, and that "genetic units of a higher order existed . . . that contained several genes subject to unitary expression. . . . On the basis of these ideas and observations, Jacob and Monod developed the concept of two kinds of genes, structural, which coded for the synthesis of proteins, and regulatory, which did not" (Brock, p. 300). In October 1959 Jacob and Monod published the theoretical basis for the operon in "Genes de structure et genes de regulation dans la biosynthese des proteines" (C. r. Acad. Sci. 249; see no. 11 below). Their paper "establish[ed] the sharp distinction between the familiar genes that determined protein structures and the new class of genes that regulated. It even looked to them, then, as though the product of the regulatory gene were not a protein by RNA. But the fact to be underlined, they said, was that in every known case, when several structural genes had their expression controlled by the same regulatory gene-'that is to say, in all probability by a unique repressor'-the structural genes were grouped tightly together. . . . [T]he best fit to the evidence was that the group of genes had among them a single element: the operator, target of the repressor" (Judson, p. 410).

The Jacob/Monod operon model of gene expression was further explored in their 1961 paper "On the regulation of gene activity (CSH Symposia on Quant. Biol. 26; see no. 14 below), which presented a more detailed examination of the mechanics of protein synthesis. For further information, see Judson, The Eighth Day of Creation (2nd ed.) and Brock, The Emergence of Bacterial Genetics; specific references are given below.

1. Brenner, Sydney; Jacob, Francois; & Meselson, Matthew. An unstable intermediate carrying information from genes to ribosomes for protein synthesis. Offprint from Nature 190 (May 13, 1961). 576-581pp. Diagrams. Without wrappers as issued. Light toning. Ownership signature of E. W. Meynell on the first page. Garrson-Morton 256.10. Brock, ch. 10.12. Judson, pp. 414-27.

2. Lwoff, Andre. Lysogeny. Offprint from Bacteriological Review 17 (1953). 269-337pp. Without wrappers. Small stamp on first page. Brock, ch. 7.4.

3. Monod, Jacques. Inhibition de l'adaptation enzymatique chez une bacterie (E. coli) infectee par un bacteriophage. Offprint from C. r. Acad. Sci. 224 (1947). 2, [2, blank]pp. Without wrappers. Light browning, creased horizontally with small tear along crease. Ownership stamp and ms. annotations of A. A. Miles.

4. Lwoff & Siminovitch, Louis. Induction de la lyse d'une bacterie lysogene sans production de bactÈrophage. Offprint from C. r. Acad. Sci. 233 (1951). 3pp. Fore-edge frayed, marginal tear affecting a few words. A. A. Miles's signature.

5. Jacob, Francois & Wollman, Elie. Induction of phage development in lysogenic bacteria. Offprint from CSH Symposia on Quant. Biol. 18 (1953). 101-121pp. Without wrappers. Light soiling, a few annotations. Owner's name on first page. Judson, p. 382.

6. Wollman & Jacob. Sur le mecanisme du transfert de materiel genetique au cours de la recombinaison chez E. coli K12. Offprint from C. r. Acad. Sci. 240 (1955). 3pp. Without wrappers. Creased horizontally, light toning. Ownership signature of Elinor Meynell. Brock, ch. 5.7.

7. Jacob; Alfoldi, Lajos; & Wollman, Elie. Zygose letale dans des croisements entre souches colicinogenes et non colicinogËnes d'E. coli. Offprint from C. r. Acad. Sci. 244 (1957). 3pp. Without wrappers. Small marginal tears. Elinor Meynell signature.

8. Wollman; Jacob & Hayes, W. Conjugation and genetic recombination in E. coli K-12. Offprint from CSH Symposia on Quant. Biol. 21 (1956). 141-162pp. Without wrappers. Brock, ch. 5.11.

9. Jacob. Transfer and expression of genetic information in E. coli K12. Manuscript for the Symposium of the Society for Cell Biology, Brussels, 1958. 29, 3pp. Dittoed table. Mimeographed. Without wrappers. Edges a bit frayed. E. Meynell signature. Judson, p. 400.

10. Jacob & Fuerst, Clarence R. The mechanism of lysis by phage studied with defective lysogenic bacteria. Offprint from J. Gen. Microbiol. 18 (1958). 518-526pp. Without wrappers. E. Meynell signature.

11. Jacob & Monod. Genes de structure et genes de regulation dans la biosynthese des proteines. Offprint from C. r. Acad. Sci. 249 (1959). 3pp. Without wrappers. Creased horizontally. E. Meynell signature. Brock, ch. 10.10. Judson, p. 410.

12. Changeux, Jean-Pierre. Sur l'expression biochimique de determinants genetiques d'E. coli introduits chez Salmonella typhimurium. Offprint from C. r. Acad. Sci. 250 (1960). 3pp. Creased horizontally. Meynell signature.

13. Jacob. Comments. Offprint from Cancer Research 20 (1960). 695-697pp. Without wrappers.

14. Jacob & Monod. On the regulation of gene activity. Offprint from CSH Symposia on Quant. Biol. 26 (1961). 193-211pp. Without wrappers. Meynell signature. Brock, ch. 10.13.

15. Jacob & Monod. Elements of regulatory circuits in bacteria. Unesco Symposium on Biological Organization. Paris, 1962. Mimeographed. 27pp. plus tables and figures. Without wrappers. Light browning.

16. Jacob; Brenner, Sydney; & Cuzin, Francois. On the regulation of DNA replication in bacteria. Offprint from CSH Symposia on Quant. Biol. 28 (1963). 329-348pp. Without wrappers. Meynell signature. Brock, ch. 5.11.

17. Jacob & Ryter, Antoinette. Etude au microscope Èlectronique des relations entre mÈsosomes et noyaux chez Bacillus subtilis. Offprint from C. r. Acad. Sci. 257 (1963). 4pp. Plate. Without wrappers. Meynell signature.

18. Lennox, Edwin S. ; Novick, Aaron; & Jacob. Relation between repression level and rate of enzyme synthesis. Offprint from Colloques Internationaux du Centre Nat. de la Recherche Scientifique. No. 124. Mecanismes de regulation des activites cellulaires chez les microorganisms (1965). 209-219pp. Orig. wrappers. Meynell signature.

19. Sebald, Madeleine & Schaeffer, Pierre. Toxinogenese et sporulation chez Clostridium histolyticum. Offprint from C. r. Acad. Sci. 260 (1965). 3pp. Without wrappers.

20. Jacob & Ryter. Segregation des noyaux chez Bacillus subtilis au cours de la germination des spores. Offprint from C. r. Acad. Sci. 263 (1966). 4pp. Plate. Without wrappers. Meynell signature.

21. Jacob & Ryter. Segregation des noyaux pendant la croissance et la germination de B. subtilis. Offprint from C. r. Acad. Sci. 264 (1967). 3pp. Plate. Without wrappers.

22. Jacob. Genetics of the bacterial cell. Offprint from Science 152 (1966). 9pp. Orig. printed self-wrappers. Nobel address. Meynell signature.

23. Jacob; Pereira da Silva, Luiz; & Eisen, Harvey. Sur la rÈplication du bacteriophage l. Offprint from C. r. Acad. Sci. 266 (1968). 3pp. Without wrappers.

24. Ryter, A.; Hirota, Y.; & Jacob. DNA-Membrane complex and nuclear segregation in bacteria. Offprint from CSH Symposia on Quant. Biol. 33 (1968). 669-676pp.

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